A study of the transmission of COVID-19 variants to and through Canada shows that international travel restrictions have been a key measure to reduce or slow the spread, according to a report published today in eLife.
The findings suggest that reducing the number of virus imports, which can trigger domestic outbreaks within a country through dynamic travel bans, gives governments more time to prepare for a new variant – by stepping up testing, contact tracing and vaccination programs.
The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of genomic epidemiology – that is, the genetic sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 samples from different regions and times – to understand the origin and international movement of virus variants, particularly those of concern or interest Variants . These methods have been widely used in the UK, US, Brazil, New Zealand and Europe and have illustrated the differences in epidemic dynamics between countries that have adopted different public health approaches to contain the virus.
“Large-scale genomic epidemiological analyzes of SARS-CoV-2 in Canada have so far been limited to a study of the early epidemic in Quebec,” says lead author Angela McLaughlin, research assistant at the British Columbia Center for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, and a graduate student in bioinformatics. University of British Columbia, Canada. “We wanted to deepen this research with a national-level analysis for the first and second waves of COVID-19. We also wanted to assess the impact of the March 2020 international travel restrictions on international imports of the virus and understand why the virus persisted into 2021.”
The team used available sequence data from Canadian COVID-19 cases and data on the prevalence of circulating variants in other countries to estimate the geographic origin of the viruses. From this, they identified more than 2,260 introductions of new variants into Canada, including 680 sublineages – viruses that were introduced from other countries and then circulated within the Canadian population. They also identified 1,582 singletons – introduced viruses that did not appear to be spreading within the Canadian population.
Just as travel restrictions were introduced in April 2020, the import rate reached its maximum (58.5 sub-lines per week), including 31.8 from the US and 31.2 imported exclusively in Quebec. Two weeks after the travel restrictions came into force, the total import rate of the sub-lines had fallen 3.4 times and 10.3 times within four weeks.
Despite these reductions, however, new virus variants continued to be introduced at low levels until August 2020, when there was a small surge in cases leading to the second wave. This suggests that wild-type sublines, introduced in the summer when prevalence and immunity were low, accounted for the highest proportion of second-wave COVID-19 cases. This in turn implies that even low levels of ongoing virus imports of similarly transmissible variants can contribute to viral persistence. Travel restrictions were eased further by mid-October and import rates recovered quickly, contributing to the second wave.
By categorizing sources of transmission as intra-province, inter-provincial, US and other international sources, the team was able to see where the new virus imports came from. They found that most of the first wave virus imports (January to July 2020) came from the United States, followed by Russia, Italy, India, Spain and the United Kingdom, and were mainly imported into Quebec and Ontario. In the second wave (August 2020 to late February 2021), the origin of new sublineages was still dominated by the US, with increased relative contributions from India, UK, Asia, Europe and Africa.
That the US had a large proportion of COVID-19 cases in 2020 was not unexpected by the authors given the high COVID-19 prevalence in 2020 and the long land border between the two countries. Even as international arrivals in Canada fell 77.8% from 2019 to 2020, the number of truck drivers and crew members (air, ship and train) only fell 24.8%, accounting for almost half of all after April 2020 international arrivals. Although these arrivals, which were key supply chain support workers, may have inadvertently facilitated additional imports from the US – suggesting this is an area where better public health measures such as contact tracing and rapid testing could help. to prevent the movement of new variants.
“These analyzes shed light on the natural epidemiological history of SARS-CoV-2 in the context of public health interventions and demonstrate how sublineage-based genome surveillance can be used to identify gaps in a country’s epidemic response.” , concludes senior author Jeffrey Joy. Research Scientist at the British Columbia Center for Excellence in HIV/AIDS and Assistant Professor at the Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia. “Broad and long-standing restrictions on non-essential international travel are not necessarily a prudent policy given the economic impact. However, our analysis suggests that rapid and strict travel bans are needed towards locations with a high frequency of a new variant of concern or an outbreak of an entirely new virus that has not yet been identified domestically should be seriously considered to assess the likelihood reduce multiple simultaneous outbreaks and health systems overload.
Beyond the hype, a dirty side of Da Lat
Most of this is true, but that’s not the only local reality where things get pretty ugly, too. Unless this reality is recognized and seriously addressed, Da Lat will lose its charm and become a shadow of itself.
Here’s an unflattering picture of the other side.
When walking or running on a sidewalk around Xuan Huong Lake in Da Lat in the early morning, at a certain point you can no longer stay on the sidewalk. One is forced to walk or run into the street as there can be up to ten street kitchens completely blocking sidewalk access. Going out on a street at night can be a bit dangerous as there are quite a number of drunk drivers on the road at night, some driving at speeds well in excess of 120km/h.
These street vendors sell food and drink in plastic bowls and cups. Plastic waste is scattered about a hundred meters in front of and behind their stands. Food and drink thrown away or spilled on sidewalks and streets is a common sight.
Because food safety isn’t monitored regularly, or because people might be very drunk, it’s also not uncommon to see vomit on sidewalks. Open stool and urination is a regular occurrence in the early hours of the morning.
There are many signs along the lake advising that making fires is forbidden, but the street vendors completely ignore them. Many tourists from warmer parts of Vietnam easily come to Da Lat in shorts and T-shirts, despite the colder weather. Street vendors want these visitors to stay warm so they stay longer and buy more food and drink. Sidewalks are often blackened with ash from these staying-warm fires.
When I was photographing these fires, a street vendor threatened to stab me with scissors several times. Some vendors started throwing rocks. A man tried to grab my walking stick and the cell phone I use to take pictures. I reported these incidents to the police but they took no action.
These charcoal fires release many deadly toxins such as PM2.5, carbon monoxide and benzene. When street vendors run out of charcoal, some start burning plastic waste. Burning plastic waste releases dioxins and other highly toxic substances. A piece of dioxin the size of a grain of rice is enough to poison a million people.
To keep their customers happy, some street vendors sell beer and other alcoholic beverages. Some install large speakers so their customers can sing and make lots of noise when they get totally drunk. Not infrequently, the karaoke singing continues until 4 a.m. and can be heard up to two miles away. Although the law prohibits singing karaoke after 10:30 p.m., this law is not enforced around Xuan Huong Lake. Once I heard karaoke singing in three different places around the lake, all blaring at the same time.
Almost everything I have described so far represents laws that are constantly being broken. But why don’t street vendors and their customers obey the law when it’s clearly stated on signs in the area?
The answer is simple.
Laws are not enforced. I have more than 12,000 pictures on my files of breaking the law in this city that gets dirty and ugly quite often, but I didn’t see a fine being issued when I called the police to intervene — not once.
A policeman explained it to me in a somewhat pompous way. If the police consistently enforce laws, it would infuriate many people, and with many angry people out and about, the country’s stability would be undermined and civil unrest could ensue.
The same officer went on to explain that if the police strictly enforce the law, things could get out of hand very quickly. People could become violent, and if the police hit back to defend themselves, controversy would ensue.
With a huge police force and militia, Vietnam has everything it needs to counter the violence and maintain political stability. So what’s the problem?
For many years, the police in Division 8 themselves have blatantly flouted the laws about dumping trash, throwing cigarette butts on the ground, and burning garbage. They even ran a fire pit on police property.
How can the police enforce laws when they themselves break them all the time?
On October 31, I informed a senior police officer in Da Lat that I have over 12,000 pictures of people breaking laws – laws related to setting fires on sidewalks, burning trash, dumping trash, dumping of waste and fishing in the filthy waters of Da Lat Xuan Huong Lake and its stinking lagoons, singing karaoke until 4 a.m., binge drinking, drunk driving, high speed motorcycle racing and so on.
I was surprised when he explained that I should not photograph people breaking the law unless their lawlessness directly impacted my safety and well-being.
Surely it is every citizen’s duty to record violations of the law and report them to law enforcement?
Even when someone threatened me with violence, he advised me not to take photos and to report the person to the police unless I had stab wounds or other injuries.
I was stunned.
I think the government needs to be much more serious about enforcing its most basic safety and environmental laws. If it doesn’t, it won’t be able to tackle far bigger things like the impact of global warming, carbon neutrality and sustainable development.
Photos by Paul A. Olivier of public waste in Da Lat:
*Paul A. Olivier is an American expat living and working in Da Lat.
How two Hyderabadi 3D artists are popularizing city’s flyovers, roads, buildings at global level
Hyderabad: For most of us, photography means clicking photos of a beautiful sunset, landscape or people. But Laxman Pithani and Nikhil Chakravarthy from Hyderabad are crazy about new buildings, roads, highways, flyovers and other infrastructure projects in the city.
“When you’re driving on a newly constructed freeway, with not many vehicles and hardly anyone to stop you or ask you anything, you have a kind of absolute freedom. We both enjoy it,” says Nikhil.
Laxman and Nikhil jointly run a Twitter and YouTube page, Traveling with Laxman, where they post videos and photos of newly constructed or inaugurated flyovers, roads and buildings. They have released drone footage of the Uppal SkyWalk project, the renovated Yadagirigutta Temple, Gandipet Park, the Biodiversity Flyover and more.
Laxman (left) and Nikhil (right) at the recently inaugurated Shilpa layout transition
Her most recent work was the transition of the Shilpa layout. When the city witnessed their first Formula E racing event, they were there to capture the track on which the race took place. On their Twitter Page Travel with Laxman, they have around 2,806 followers and on their youtube Page they have around 57,000 subscribers.
Transition of the Shilpa layout
It’s not about the end product. But Laxman and Nikhil began pursuing infrastructure projects in the city from the start. “If there are upcoming projects, we consult the person concerned and get detailed information about it. We shoot it from start to finish,” says Laxman.
In this way, it helps the audience to keep up to date with the progress of these projects.
When Laxman met Nikhil
Laxman is originally from Hyderabad but Nikhil is from Tenali in Andhra Pradesh. He moved to Hyderabad in 2002. Both met in 2007 in an animation institute `Arena; where they served as 3D training faculty. Here they taught the students how to use animation techniques in films and character forms. They later moved on to teach interior design at the same institute. In 2015 they both joined Custom Furnish, a company specializing in interior design, where they worked as 3D artists. In 2019, Nikhil left and Laxman continued for another year and a half before retiring in 2021.
Durgam Cheruvu Bridge
Ever since they met, they have discovered their shared passion for travel. Your definition of travel sounds very unique and interesting. “We both love to explore unknown roads. I can drive straight for 10 hours without thinking about the destination. We used to always discover new roads, overpasses, buildings, etc. on such trips, which fascinated us a lot. Each specific destination where nobody bothered us gave us a different kind of freedom,” explains Nikhil.
Until December 2021, Laxman and Nikhil were doing this as a part-time job. But in December 2021 both resigned and started doing so full-time.
Her work is now also being recognized by the Telangana government, which is asking for her help in getting photos of some of the infrastructure projects in the city.
Command and Control Center, Banjara Hills
Development in Hyderabad
Both Laxman and Nikhil say the pace of development in Hyderabad has been very fast compared to other cities. “I was born here, so I’m really excited to see the city developing at this pace,” says Laxman. Nikhil adds: “Something happens every week that it just can’t keep up with this speed. For example, the other day when the Shilpa layout flyover was inaugurated, on the same day Skyroot Aerospace’s private rocket was launched from Sriharikota.”
transfer of biodiversity
In addition to updating townspeople on the development, Travel with Laxman now allows many expatriate Hyderabadis to regain their lost connection with the city. “We have people calling from places like the United States and telling us they’re excited about how their city is doing,” says Laxman.
Renovated Yadadrigutta Temple
The duo are happy to be able to fill this gap faced by Hyderabadis living elsewhere.
Wedding of the week: Lovebirds elope on a Balinese beach following three months of top secret planning
Jamie Hart, 36, and Daniel Sutton, 44
Western Australian senior graphic designer Jamie and welder Daniel always knew their wedding should be small and intimate, but they also wanted an element of surprise.
The couple, who met online in March 2021, had planned a trip to Indonesia and made the spur of the moment decision to elope because why not? They were too excited to wait a year to tie the knot, so they turned their engagement party into a secret wedding celebration.
After legally signing the papers at The Old Tower House in Perth a week earlier, Jamie and Daniel said ‘yes, I do’ in Bali, with Daniel honorably taking Jamie’s maiden name, Hart.
When and where
The big day took place on October 22, 2022 on the white sandy beaches of the Nusa Dua Beach Hotel & Spa.
Jamie’s dress of choice, Morilee, was by New York bridal designer Madeline Gardner.
There was no need to travel to their honeymoon destination as the newlyweds were already there! They celebrated in Nusa Dua, Ubud, Seminyak and Canggu.
If you would like to be featured, send your wedding details and high resolution photos to [email protected]
Add details about when, where, dress information, honeymoon and anything that made your big day special!
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